Painting Techniques :

Jul 8, 2014 by

Painting Techniques :

If you’ve ever wondered “how did the artist do that?” and are looking for answers, these photos and information of various painting techniques will help you find out what was used to create various effects and styles of painting.

Different types of paint are usually identified by the medium that the pigment is suspended or embedded in, which determines the general working characteristics of the paint, such as viscosity, miscibility, solubility, drying time, etc. thus evolving various types of painting techniques.

Acrylic painting  :   acrylic_paintingAcrylic painting techniques are different styles of manipulating and working with polymer-based acrylic paints. Acrylics differ from oil paints in that they have shorter drying times (as little as 10 minutes) and are soluble in water. These types of paint eliminate the need for turpentine and gesso, and can be applied directly onto canvas. Aside from painting with concentrated color paints, acrylics can also be watered down to a consistency that can be poured or used for glazes. Methods in Acrylic painting include – Preventing paint from drying out, Creating fluid paints, Painting glazes, Pouring paints.

Bark painting  :  Bark_Painting1Bark painting is an Australian Aboriginal art form, involving painting on the interior of a strip of tree bark. Traditionally, bark paintings were produced for instructional and ceremonial purposes and were transient objects. Bark paintings are based on sacred designs that include abstract patterns and designs (such as cross-hatching in particular colours) that identify a clan, and also often contain elements of the Eternal Dreamtime. Sometimes the elements of a story are obvious—such as men or animals—but sometimes the elements are symbolic. The barest necessities for bark artwork are paint, brushes, bark, fixative and a fire.A bark painting consists of several components, not all of which may be present in an individual painting, and that are generally applied in the following order:

Ground, Border, Dividing Lines, Feature Blocks, Figurative designs, geometric designs, Clan designs, Cross-hatching.

bark_painting2The modern form of bark paintings first appeared in the 1930s. The motives of the missionaries were to earn money that would help pay for the mission, and also to educate white Australians about Yolngu culture (Morphy 1991). Narritjin Maymuru was one of the leading artists in these bark paintings.

It was, however, not until the 1980s that bark paintings started being regarded as fine art, as opposed to an interesting Indigenous handicraft, and commanded high prices accordingly on the international art markets. Nowadays, the value of a fine bark painting depends not only on the skill and fame of the artist, and on the quality of the art itself, but also on the degree to which the artwork encapsulates the culture by telling a traditional story.

Cobweb painting  :  cobwebCobweb painting, sometimes known as gossamer painting relates to paintings that are created on a canvas made from spiders webs that have been collected, layered, cleaned, and placed within a frame. Less than 100 known cobweb paintings are known to exist, many of which are housed in private collections.

Drip painting  :  dripapintingDrip painting is a form of abstract art in which paint is dripped or poured onto the canvas. This style of action painting was experimented with in the first half of the twentieth century by such artists as Francis Picabia, André Masson and Max Ernst. Drip painting was however to find particular expression in the work of the mid-twentieth-century artists Janet Sobel and Jackson Pollock. Pollock used house paint to create his signature drips. House paint was less viscous than traditional tubes of oil paint, and Pollock thus created his large compositions horizontally to prevent his paint from running. His gestural lines create a unified overall pattern that allows the eye to travel from one of the canvases to the other and back again.

En-caustic painting  :  encausticpainting1En-caustic painting, also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added. The liquid or paste is then applied to a surface—usually prepared wood, though canvas and other materials are often used. The simplest encaustic mixture can be made from adding pigments to beeswax, but there are several other recipes that can be used—some containing other types of waxes, damar resin, linseed oil, or other ingredients. Pure, powdered pigments can be used, though some mixtures use oil paints or other forms of pigment.

encausticpainting2The word encaustic originates from the Greek word enkaustikos which means to burn in, and this element of heat is necessary for a painting to be called encaustic. Metal tools and special brushes can be used to shape the paint before it cools, or heated metal tools can be used to manipulate the wax once it has cooled onto the surface. Because wax is used as the pigment binder, encaustics can be sculpted as well as painted. Other materials can be encased or collagen into the surface, or layered, using the encaustic medium to stick them to the surface.

Fingerpaint  :  fingerprintpaintingFingerpaint is a kind of paint intended to be applied with the fingers; it typically comes in pots and is used by small children, though it has occasionally been used by adults either to teach art to children, or for their own use. American educator Ruth Faison Shaw is credited with introducing fingerpainting as an art education medium. She developed her techniques in Rome, Italy, before patenting a safe non-toxic paint in 1931. After developing her expressive medium for children, Shaw devoted her attention to the therapeutic benefits of finger-painting. Although the name implies that the paint is applied with the fingers, expert use of this medium makes use of the hands and lower arms too.

Some artists are known to solely paint with their hands, as a way to become more intimate with the process. These artists do not use traditional fingerpaint. This style, “Reckless Art,” is most accurately categorized as a sub-genre of outsider art. Finger painting artist Nick Benjamin claims he “prefers to paint using fingers as the technique results in a real bond between the artwork and artist and allows for some intricate blending not achievable with brushes”.

Grisaille  :  grisaillepaintingGrisaille is a term for painting executed entirely in monochrome or near-monochrome, usually in shades of grey. It is particularly used in large decorative schemes in imitation of sculpture. Many grisailles in fact include a slightly wider colour range, like the Andrea del Sarto fresco illustrated. Paintings executed in brown are sometimes referred to by the more specific term brunaille, and paintings executed in green are sometimes called verdaille. Grisaille paintings resemble the drawings, normally in monochrome, that artists from the Renaissance on were trained to produce; like drawings they can also betray the hand of a less talented assistant more easily than a fully colored painting. Grisaille, while less widespread in the 20th century, continues as an artistic technique. Picasso’s Guernica is one example of a contemporary painting in grisaille.

Haboku  :  habokupaintingFor the haboku (‘broken ink’) style, the artist uses no outlines, but instead relies on areas of splashed ink wash and layers of ink shading to create the three-dimensional impression of mountains, trees, and rocks in a landscape. The technique involves a remarkable economy of brushwork, and it is because of this shorthand nature that it is described as haboku (broken ink) or hatsuboku (flung ink). Haboku and Hatsuboku are both a technique employed in suiboku (ink based). The two terms are often confused with each other in ordinary use. Generally, haboku relies on a layered contrast black, gray and white, whereas hatsuboku utilizes “splashes” of ink, without leaving clear contours or outlines. In Japan, these styles of painting were firmly founded and spread by the Japanese painter Sesshu Toyo.
Impasto  :  Impasto1Impasto is a technique used in painting, where paint is laid on an area of the surface (or the entire canvas) very thickly, usually thickly enough that the brush or painting-knife strokes are visible. Paint can also be mixed right on the canvas. When dry, impasto provides texture, the paint appears to be coming out of the canvas. The word impasto is Italian in origin; in that language it means “dough” or “mixture”; the verb “impastare” translates variously as “to knead”, or “to paste”. Oil paint is most suitable to the impasto painting technique, due to its thickness and slow drying time. Acrylic paint can also be impastoed. Impasto is generally not possible in watercolour or tempera without the addition of thickening agent due to the inherent thinness of these media.
Impastoed paint serves several purposes. First, it makes the light reflect in a particular way, giving the artist additional control over the play of light on the painting. Second, it can add expressiveness to the painting, the viewer being able to notice the strength and speed applied by the artist. Third, impasto can push a painting into a three-dimensional sculptural rendering.

Leaf painting  :  Leaf_PaintingLeaf painting is the process of painting with dyed leaves. Deriving from Japan, China or India, it became popular in Vietnam. Its two main forms are: Cutting and pasting dry leaf to make leaf paintings or using paint to draw onto the surface of dry leaf to make leaf paintings. Every product is unique, quite different from the others because of the leaves’ veins, the forms, and the colors before or after dying. It is one of the most beautiful painting in the world.

Maki-e  :  makieartMaki-e (literally: sprinkled picture) is Japanese lacquer sprinkled with gold or silver powder as a decoration using a makizutsu or a kebo brush. The technique was developed mainly in the Heian Period (794–1185) and blossomed in the Edo Period (1603–1868). Maki-e objects were initially designed as household items for court nobles; they soon gained more popularity and were adopted by royal families and military leaders as a symbol of power. To create different colours and textures, maki-e artists use a variety of metal powders including gold, silver, copper, brass, lead, aluminum, platinum, and pewter, as well as their alloys. Bamboo tubes and soft
brushes of various sizes are used for laying powders and drawing fine lines. Another special kind of maki-e is togidashi maki-e, where a
black lacquer without oil is put on the metal decoration as an additional coat.

Nocturne painting  :  nocturnepaintingNocturne painting is a term coined by James Abbott McNeill Whistler to describe a painting style that depicts scenes evocative of the night or subjects as they appear in a veil of light, in twilight, or in the absence of direct light. In a broader usage, the term has come to refer to any painting of a night scene, or night-piece, such as Rembrandt’s The Night Watch. Whistler used the term within the title of his works to represent paintings with a “dreamy, pensive mood” by applying a musical name.The use of the term “nocturne” can be associated with the Tonalism movement of the American of the late 19th century and early 20th century which is “characterized by soft, diffused light, muted tones and hazy outlined objects, all of which imbue the works with a strong sense of mood.” Along with winter scenes, nocturnes were a common Tonalist theme. Frederic Remington used the term as well for his nocturne scenes of the American Old West.

Oil sketch  :  oilsketchpaintingAn Oil sketch or oil study is an artwork made primarily in oil paints that is more abbreviated in handling than a fully finished painting.
Originally these were created as preparatory studies or modelli, especially so as to gain approval for the design of a larger
commissioned painting. The usual medium for modelli was the drawing, but an oil sketch, even if done in a limited range of colours,
could better suggest the tone of the projected work. It is also possible to more fully convey the flow and energy of a composition in
paint. A systematic producer of small modelli sketches on canvas with a high degree of finish was the 18th century Venetian Giovanni
Battista Tiepolo, whose superb technique is often shown at its best in reducing a huge altarpiece to a lively but precise rendering at this
small scale.

Pin striping  :  pinstripingPin striping (pinstriping) is the application of a very thin line of paint or other material called a pin stripe, and is generally used for decoration. Freehand pin stripers use a specialty brush known as a pinstriping brush. Fine lines in textiles are also called pin stripes.
Automotive, bike shops, and do-it-yourself car and motorcycle mechanics use paint pin striping to create their own custom look on the automotive bodies and parts. The goal of pin striping is to enhance the curves of the surface, and the lines are generally of a complementary color. In any other form of decorative pin stripes, the goal is the same.

Quadri riportati  :  quadripaintingQuadri riportati (“transported paintings”) is the Italian phrase for “carried picture”. It is used in art to describe gold-framed easel paintings or framed paintings that are seen in a normal perspective and painted into a fresco. The final effect is similar to Illusionism, but the latter encompasses painted statues, reliefs and tapestries. The ceiling is intended to look as if a framed painting has been placed overhead; there is no illusionistic foreshortening, figures appearing as if they were to be viewed at normal eye level.

Reverse painting on glass  :  OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAReverse painting on glass is an art form consisting of applying paint to a piece of glass and then viewing the image by turning the glass over and looking through the glass at the image. Another term used to refer to the art of cold painting and gilding on the back of glass is verre églomisé, named after the French decorator Jean-Baptiste Glomy (1711–86), who framed prints using glass that had been reverse-painted. In German it is known as Hinterglasmalerei. This art form has been around for many years. It was widely used for sacral paintings since Middle Ages. The most famous was the art of icons in the Byzantine Empire. Later the painting on glass spread to Italy where in Venice it influenced its Renaissance art.
reverse2Recently this style of painting is gaining fame in its depiction of Hindu deities, especially in Southern India. These invariably involve a large amount of gold paint and colours, like red and green, for the gem stones adorning the deities. The most prominent step in this style of painting is that the gem stones on the different pieces of jewelries are painted first and then coated with gold to provide the jewelry effect. Acrylic paint is the commonly used painting medium and these involve very thin brushes and minute workmanship. This style of painting could rival the traditional Tanjore painting in the coming years with its stylish appeal and much lesser costs in the near future.

Spray painting : sprayAerosol paint (also called spray paint) is a type of paint that comes in a sealed pressurized container and is released in a fine spray mist when depressing a valve button. A form of spray painting, aerosol paint leaves a smooth, evenly coated surface. Standard sized cans are portable, inexpensive and easy to store. Aerosol primer can be applied directly to bare metal and many plastics.

Speed, portability and permanence also make aerosol paint a common graffiti medium. In the late 1970s, street graffiti writers’ signatures and murals became more elaborate and a unique style developed as a factor of the aerosol medium and the speed required for illicit work. Many now recognize graffiti and street art as a unique art form and specifically manufactured aerosol paints are made for the graffiti artist. A stencil protects a surface, except the specific shape to be painted. Stencils can be purchased as movable letters, ordered as professionally cut logos or hand-cut by artists.

Tempera  :  temperaTempera, also known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigment mixed with a water-soluble binder medium (usually a glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size). Tempera also refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera paintings are very long lasting, and examples from the first centuries AD still exist. Egg tempera was a primary method of painting until after 1500 when it was superseded by the invention of oil painting. A paint commonly called tempera (though it is not) consisting of pigment and glue size is commonly used and referred to by some manufacturers in America as poster paint.

Underpainting  :  underpaintingIn art, an underpainting is an initial layer of paint applied to a ground, which serves as a base for subsequent layers of paint. Underpaintings are often monochromatic and help to define colour values for later painting. There are several different types of underpainting, such as verdaccio and grisaille.

Underpainting gets its name because it is painting that is intended to be painted over (see overpainting) in a system of working in layers. There is a popular misconception that underpainting should be monochromatic, perhaps in gray-scales. A multi-color underpainting was thought to be more useful by artists such as Giotto, as well as by Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden (whose technique has been studied with modern scientific analysis). This technique was pioneered by Titian in the High Renaissance. The colors of the underpainting can be optically mingled with the subsequent overpainting, without the danger of the colors physically blending and becoming muddy. If underpainting is done properly, it facilitates overpainting. If it seems that if one has to fight to obscure the underpainting, it is a sign that it was not done properly.

Velvet painting  :  velvetA velvet painting is a type of painting distinguished by the use of velvet (usually black velvet) as the support, in place of canvas, paper, or similar materials. The velvet provides an especially dark background against which colors stand out brightly. Velvet painting is an ancient technique, and took on a new popularity in the United States in the late 20th Century. In Portland, Oregon, a museum devoted solely to velvet paintings, the Velveteria, operated from late 2005 to January 2010. It reopened in December of 2013 in the Chinatown neighborhood of Los Angeles, Calif.

Watercolor painting  :  OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAWatercolor (American English) or watercolour (Commonwealth and Ireland), also aquarelle from French, is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-soluble vehicle. The term “watercolor” refers to both the medium and the resulting artwork. The traditional and most common support for watercolor paintings is paper; other supports include papyrus, bark papers, plastics, vellum or leather, fabric, wood, and canvas. Watercolors are usually transparent, and appear luminous because the pigments are laid down in a relatively pure form with few fillers obscuring the pigment colors. Watercolor can also be made opaque by adding Chinese white. Modern watercolor paints are now as durable and colorful as oil or acrylic paints, and the recent renewed interest in drawing and multimedia art has also stimulated demand for fine works in watercolor.

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