Dance – One among 64 arts (Nritya vidya)

Jul 23, 2014 by

Dance  –   One among 64 arts (Nritya vidya)

About Dance :
Dance is a type of art that generally involves movement of the body, often rhythmic and to music. It is performed in many cultures as a form of emotional expression, social interaction, or exercise, in a spiritual or performance setting, and is sometimes used to express ideas or tell a story. Dance may also be regarded as a form of nonverbal communication between humans or other animals, as in bee dances and behavior patterns such as a mating dances.women dancing on stage

There are many styles and genres of dance. African dance is interpretative. Ballet, ballroom and tango are classical dance styles. Square dance and electric slide are forms of step dance, and breakdancing is a type of street dance. Dance can be participatory, social, or performed for an audience. It can also be ceremonial, competitive or erotic. Dance movements may be without significance in themselves, as in ballet or European folk dance, or have a gestural vocabulary or symbolic meaning as in some Asian dances.
Choreography is the art of creating dances. The person who creates (i.e., choreographs) a dance is known as the choreographer.

Origin and History :
Dance does not leave behind clearly identifiable physical artifacts such as stone tools, hunting implements or cave paintings. It is not possible to say when dance became part of human culture, but archeological evidence indicates dance has been an important part of ceremony, rituals, celebrations and entertainment since the earliest human civilizations.
One of the earliest structured uses of dances may have been the telling of myths. Before the invention of written languages, dance was one of the methods of passing stories down from generation to generation. Dance was also used to show feelings for one of the opposite gender.

Classification :
Dance can be categorized in various ways, such as by the number of interacting dancers, as in solo dance, partner dance and group dance, or by purpose, as in ceremonial dance, erotic dance, performance dance, and social dance.

1. Asia
India –OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
During the first millennium BCE in India, many texts were composed which attempted to codify aspects of daily life. In the matter of dance, Bharata Muni’s Natyashastra (literally “the text of dramaturgy”) is one of the earlier texts. There rose the various classical styles which are recognised today. Therefore, all Indian classical dances are to varying degrees rooted in the Natyashastra and therefore share common features: for example, the mudras, some body positions, and the inclusion of dramatic or expressive acting or abhinaya.

Bhangra in the Punjab –bangra
The Punjab area overlapping India and Pakistan is the place of origin of Bhangra. It is widely known both as a style of music and a dance. It is mostly related to ancient harvest celebrations, love, patriotism or social issues.

Sri Lanka –
The devil dances of Sri Lanka or “yakun natima” are a carefully crafted ritual with a history reaching far back into Sri Lanka’s pre-Buddhist past. It combines ancient “Ayurvedic” concepts of disease causation with psychological manipulation. The dance combines many aspects including Sinhalese cosmology, the dances also has an impact on the classical dances of Sri Lanka.

2. Europe and North America
Ballet –ballet
Ballet developed first in Italy and then in France from lavish court spectacles that combined music, drama, poetry, song, costumes and dance. Members of the court nobility took part as performers. The first ballet dance academy was the Académie Royale de Danse (Royal Dance Academy), opened in Paris in 1661.

20th century concert dance –
At the beginning of the 20th century, there was an explosion of innovation in dance style characterized by an exploration of freer technique. In the 1920s, important founders of the new style such as Martha Graham and Doris Humphrey began their work. Since this time, a wide variety of dance styles have been developed; see Modern dance.

3. African American dance
African American dances are those dances which have developed within African American communities in everyday spaces, rather than in dance studios, schools or companies and its derivatives, tap dance, disco, jazz dance, swing dance, hip hop dance and breakdance. Other dances, such as the lindy hop with its relationship to rock and roll music and rock and roll dance have also had a global influence.

4. Dance by purpose
Dance to raise awareness –
Many people use dance as a means to raise awareness of various causes. Dance has been used to raise awareness of diabetes, violence against women, protecting water resources, Alzheimers, and breast cancer, to name a few.

Dancing and music :
Many early forms of music and dance were created for each other and performed together. This paired development has continued over time, producing paired dance/music forms such as the jig, waltz, tango, disco, and salsa. Some musical genres have a parallel dance form such as baroque music and baroque dance; others, such as classical music and classical ballet, developed separately.

Although dance is often accompanied by music, it can also be performed without music, or it may provide its own audible accompaniment as in tap dance. When performed with music, dance may or may not be performed in time to the music (synchronous to the music’s time signature).

Dance education :
Dance education emerged as an academic discipline in the early 1920s, and by the late 20th century, recognition of the academic value of practical knowledge led to the acceptance of practice research in academic dance education programs. Today dance studies are offered through the arts and humanities programs of many higher education institutions, leading to Bachelor of Arts and higher academic degrees.

Occupations :
1. Dancer
Professional dancers are usually employed on contract or for particular performances or productions. The professional life of a dancer is generally one of constantly changing work situations, strong competitive pressure and low pay. Consequently, professional dancers often must supplement their incomes to achieve financial stability.

2. Dance teacher
Dance teachers typically focus on teaching dance performance, or coaching competitive dancers, or both. They typically have performance experience in the types of dance they teach or coach. For example, dancesport teachers and coaches are often tournament dancers or former dancesport performers. Dance teachers may be self-employed, or employed by dance schools or general education institutions with dance programs.

3. Choreographercoreographer
Choreographers are often university trained and are typically employed for particular projects or, more rarely may work on contract as the resident choreographer for a specific dance company.

Competitions :
A dance competition is an organized event in which contestants perform dances before a judge or judges for awards, and in some cases, monetary prizes. There are several major types of dance competitions, distinguished primarily by the style or styles of dances performed. Major types of dance competitions include:dancecompetn

  • Competitive dance, in which a variety of theater dance styles, such as acro, ballet, jazz, hip-hop, lyrical, and tap, are permitted.
  • Open competitions, that permit a wide variety of dance styles. A popular example of this is the TV program So You Think You Can Dance.
  • Dancesport, which is focused exclusively on ballroom and latin dance. Popular examples of this are TV programs Dancing with the Stars and Strictly Come Dancing.
  • Single-style competitions, such as; highland dance, dance team, and Irish dance, that only permit a single dance style.
  • Today, there are various dances and dance show competitions on television and the Internet.

Reference :  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dance

 

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